PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING AND AWARENESS PROGRAM
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Nigeria. Also, it is the most common cause of cancer death in Nigerian men above 50 years. The two most common tests used to detect Prostate Cancer are Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). The most effective method for early detection of prostate cancer is the combined use of these tests.
Objectives of the Lagos State Free Prostate Cancer Awareness
To create awareness about Prostate Cancer among the populace of Lagos State, screen for and detect prostate cancer among men above 50 years and ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality due to prostate cancer.
The Prostate Cancer Awareness and Screening program serves as a screening program for cancer of the prostate. Screening programs are carried out at the LGAs using digital rectal examinations and measurement of Prostate Specific Antigens (PSA). Information, Education and Communication Materials are produced and distributed regularly at screenings, while referrals are made for appropriate patients to designated facilities.
The Lagos State Government through the Ministry of Health from the year 2008 conducted the Prostate Cancer Awareness and Screening program as “stand-alone” program until 2012. Of note is that these held at different times of the year.
In recognition of risk factors of unhealthy diet, alcohol, tobacco, and lack of physical exercise common to Cancers, Hypertension and Diabetes under the NCD awareness and screening program, the Ministry commenced in 2013 an integrated health screening package referred to as the Statewide Wellness Week of which two rounds have been successfully implemented (2013 and 2014). The program involved creating awareness and screening for hypertension and diabetes as well as screenings for cancers of the breast, cervix and prostate. Hypertension and diabetes screening took place simultaneously in all the 57 LGAs and LCDAs while screenings for cancer of the breast, cervix and prostate took place in one (1) LGA per senatorial district alongside their respective LCDA(s).
Evidence from the 1st and 2nd Rounds of the Statewide Wellness Week is supportive of the delivery of a higher social impact and substantial reduction in missed opportunities as the same clients that presented for the hypertension and diabetes screening were simultaneously screened for the cancers as applicable between the male and female genders. The resultant effect was thus greater efficiency as return on each naira spent was potentiated. This paradigm shift is also in consonance with the cardio-metabolic and cancer screening system being institutionalized in the Flagship PHC centres under the Primary Health Care Revitalization Program.
The State Government has on record conducted 7 rounds of this exercise since inception in 2008 with 5,223 men screened. A pilot exercise was carried out in Lagos Island LGA and Lagos Island East LCDA between 14th and 18th of April, 2008. The first exercise was subsequently carried out in 3 LGAs – Amuwo-Odofin, Ikeja and Ikorodu between 3rd and 7th of November, 2008. The 2nd exercise was implemented in Epe, Surulere and Shomolu LGAs from 6th to 12th of May, 2009. The 3rd exercise was carried out in Ojo, Ajeromi and Ifako/Ijaiye LGAs from 17th to 23rd of December, 2010.
Details of the results of the 7 rounds of the exercises are as follows:-
DATA GENERATED FROM FREE LAGOS STATE PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING FROM INCEPTION TILL DATE
Round Date LGA Total Screened No Requiring Biopsy No that turned up for biopsy Cancer of the Prostate
1 14th to 18th April, 2008 Lagos Island 408 36 N/A 3
2 3rd to 7thNovember, 2008 Amuwo-Odofin 347 23
Ikeja 350 24 4
Ikorodu 299 15 3
3 6th to 12th May, 2009 Epe 304 12
Surulere 283 14 2
Shomolu 355 18 2
4 17th to 23rdDecember, 2010 Ojo 270 20
Ajeromi 334 60 3
Ifako/Ijaiye 239 64 6
5 19th to 23rd December 2011 Agege 310 11 6 1
Badagry 284 10 5 2
Kosofe 389 34 21 8
Sub-total 4,172 341 N/A 43
LAGOS STATE WELLNESS WEEK
6 25th to 29thNovember 2013 1ST ROUND Alimosho 286 21 11 1
L/Island 302 36 10 3
Shomolu 160 15 8 2
7 16th to 20thDecember 2014 2ND ROUND Ikeja 228 15 10 3
L/Mainland 75 4 1 1
Sub -total 1051 91 40 6
Grand total 5223 432 N/A 51